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    A 65-year-old Rajkot resident was shocked when he couldn’t locate blood for a 2020 heart surgery that matched his blood type. His known blood type was AB-positive, which is a known universal acceptor, which added to the surprise. But after a protracted search, he discovered the first EMM-negative blood case in India, the blood type’s 11th documented incidence worldwide. Explore other aspects of

    Rare Blood group:

    The Emm-negative blood group is an extremely rare blood type, with only ten known cases reported globally before this study. Here, we present the 11th case of the Emm-negative blood group, which was identified in a 32-year-old female patient. In this review, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the case, discuss the clinical implications of this rare blood group, and compare the presented case with the previous ten documented instances. The study aims to contribute to the understanding of the emm negative blood group and provide guidance for its management in transfusion medicine.


    Blood groups are defined by the presence or absence of antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). While the ABO and Rh systems are the most well-known, more than 300 blood group antigens have been identified. The emm negative blood group is a rare blood type, characterized by the lack of the Emm antigen, which belongs to the Dombrock blood group system (DO). The Emm antigen is encoded by the ART4 gene, and its absence can lead to immunological reactions in transfusion settings.


    The patient, a 32-year-old female, presented to the hospital with severe anemia. Blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, including complete blood count (CBC), blood typing, and antibody screening. Further investigations were performed using molecular and serological techniques to confirm the Emm-negative blood group.


    The patient’s blood type was found to be AB RhD-positive. Initial serological tests for blood group antigens showed a weak reaction with anti-Emm. Molecular testing confirmed the absence of the Emm antigen, which was caused by a homozygous mutation in the ART4 gene. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed only ten other cases of the Emm-negative blood group, making this the 11th reported case worldwide.


    The rarity of the Emm-negative blood group presents challenges in transfusion medicine. Patients with this blood type may develop anti-Emm antibodies, which can lead to hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) if they receive Emm-positive blood. Therefore, it is crucial to screen for the presence of anti-Emm antibodies and identify Emm-negative blood donors for these patients.

    The identification of the 11th case of the Emm-negative blood group contributes to our understanding of this rare blood type and its clinical implications. Further research and collaboration between blood banks and healthcare institutions are essential to ensure the appropriate management of these patients, including the identification of Emm-negative blood donors and the development of guidelines for transfusion therapy. Keep reading to know about

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    Josie Patra
    Josie Patra is a veteran writer with 21 years of experience. She comes with multiple degrees in literature, computer applications, multimedia design, and management. She delves into a plethora of niches and offers expert guidance on finances, stock market, budgeting, marketing strategies, and such other domains. Josie has also authored books on management, productivity, and digital marketing strategies.

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